The lower limit of the intertidal zone is the


1 of 25

The lower limit of the intertidal zone is the

average high tide.

average middle tide.

lowest tide.

lowest edge of the rocky substrate.

None of the above choices are correct: it varies according to type of substrate.


2 of 25

The particular characteristic most widely used in classifying intertidal communities is which of the following?

Type of tides

Relative exposure to air

Type of substrate

Type of seaweeds

Relative immersion by water


3 of 25

Which of the following strategies is not used to avoid desiccation in the intertidal?

Closing shells

Crowding in areas that are always moist

Burrowing into substrate


Moving out of tide pools


4 of 25

Most sessile animals living on rocky shores are which of the following?

Deposit feeders


Detritus feeders

Filter feeders



5 of 25

If a rocky shore highly exposed to wave action is compared to a similar rocky shore that is a lot less exposed to wave action, one should expect that barnacles living on the more exposed shore show a

wider vertical distribution.

narrower tolerance to salinity.

narrower tolerance to temperature.

narrower vertical distribution.

higher resistance to predators.


6 of 25

Byssal threads are used by mussels to cope with.


wave shock.

restricted feeding.

salinity changes.

temperature changes.


7 of 25

Vertical zonation on rocky shores is mostly the result of differences in tolerance to


wave action.






8 of 25

This organism is typical of the upper intertidal on rocky shores.




Sea anemones



9 of 25

The middle intertidal is characterized by which of the following?

Constant wetting by splash and spray

Long exposure to air

Steady immersion

Exposure and immersion on a regular basis

Splashing during high tide and complete exposure at low tide


10 of 25

Intertidal organisms from exposed areas sometimes have thicker shells than their counterparts from less exposed areas. This is thought to be an adaptation to


restricted feeding.

wave shock.

salinity changes.

temperature changes.


11 of 25

Predation by sea stars on rocky shores ultimately results in

fewer species.

less wave action.

a decrease in the number of seaweeds.

an increase in the number of mussels.

more species.


12 of 25

Ecological succession ultimately results in

a climax community.

an upper-limit stage.

competitive exclusion.

keystone predation.

vertical zonation.


13 of 25

Which of the following is generally considered to be the greatest limiting resource in the rocky intertidal?




Availability of mates

Light availability


14 of 25

Which of these organisms is typically a very rare component of soft-bottom intertidal communities?

Burrowing organisms

Detritus feeders



Deposit feeders


15 of 25

Most animals living on sandy beaches are included among which of the following?


Deposit feeders





16 of 25

Fine sediments are characteristic of

shores exposed to wave action.

rocky shores.

areas with wide temperature fluctuations.

calm, less exposed shores.

areas that experience considerable water flow.


17 of 25

The interstitial water in muddy bottoms

has plenty of oxygen since temperature is much higher than in the water column.

accumulates oxygen as a result of photosynthesis by inhabitants of the sediment.

recirculates oxygen very frequently so it is high.

is deficient in oxygen.

is deficient in oxygen but only during the day.


18 of 25

The main source of food in muddy-bottom intertidal communities is




large prey



19 of 25

On Atlantic shores, the dog whelk (Nucella lapillus) has two color forms: white-shelled and brown-shelled. Survival of one form over the other form in a region appears to be related to



substrate type.

prey availability.



20 of 25

What organism would be most likely to be found in the upper intertidal zone of a rocky shoreline?



Encrusting algae


Irish moss


21 of 25

In soft-bottomed intertidal communities, locations with strong waves and currents are most likely to have which type of bottom?







22 of 25

Meiofauna live

on rocky shores.

on sandy bottoms.

between grains of sediment.

in burrows.

in the water column.


23 of 25

A species that significantly influences the structure and diversity of its community is a ______________.

predator species

keystone species

prey animal

primary producer

apex predator


24 of 25

The best reason for putting a cage over certain organisms in an intertidal study area is so that __________________.

other organisms can be kept out of the study area

biologists can control when certain animals mate

their respiration rates can be measured

they can be removed from the area

body measurements can be taken


25 of 25

Two sediments that are very rich in detritus are ______________.

sand and gravel

sand and clay

silt and gravel

clay and sand

silt and clay




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